Organisation : Krishna University
Announcement : Syllabus
Entrance Exam : KRUCET 2015 Krishna University Common Entrance Test PG Admission
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Syllabus : https://www.entrance.net.in/uploads/533-KRUCET%202015%20INfo.pdf
Home Page : https://kru.ac.in/
Test-Wise Syllabus :
Test No.01 M.Sc., Biochemistry
Section A : Structure and functions of liver, kidney, Composition of blood, blood coagulation, Digestion and absorption of proximate principles, Biological value of proteins, protein malnutrition disorders, Chemistry and physiological role of vitamins, Role of minerals in living systems, Structure and physiological roles of hormones, Basic features of immune response, Lymphoid system, T and B lymphocytes, Cellular and humoral immunity, Classes and structure of immunoglobulin, RIA, ELISA, Vaccines. Bacteria, Viruses, Organisation of genome in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, DNA replication, Biosynthesis of RNA, Protein synthesis, Genetic code, Inhibitors of DNA replication, transcription and translation, Basic concepts of regulation of gene expression, principles and applications of recombinant DNA technology.
Section B: Principles of Enzymology, Bioenergetics, Biological Oxidations, Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, amino acids and nucleic acids
Section C: Classification, chemistry and physico-chemical properties of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, porphyrins, PH and Buffers, Biomembranes–composition and organisation, Basic principles of biochemical separation methods–paper, thin layer,ion-exchange,affinity chromatography, gel filtration,Centrifugation,Electrophoresis– paper, polyacrylamide,agarose gels.Basic principles of Colorimetry and spectrophotometry.Radio isotopes and their use in Biochemistry.
TEST NO. 02: M.Sc., Biotechnology
Section-A : Physical Sciences and Mathematics –Atomic number and atomic weight. Electronic configurations, Electronic theory of valency. Oxidation states, Oxidation numbers. Common redox and ionic reactions. Nuclear chemistry, composition of nucleus, binding energy and packing fraction, Nuclear reaction. Uses of radioisotopes, Electron displacements, bond formation and fission and reaction intermediates, Nucleophiles and electrophiles. Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes, alkyl halides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters and amino preparations, properties and reactions, Benzene-aromaticity. Dilute solutions – Osmotic pressure, lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point and elevation of boiling point. Molecular weight determination in solution, association and dissociation of solutes. Chemical kinetics-Molecularity and order of a reaction – first order, second order and rate equation. Electrochemistry, laws of electrolytes, conductivity of an electrolyte, hydrolysis of salts, hydrogen ion concentration, buffer solutions and acid-base indicators. Role of metals in biological systems, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc and cobalt, toxic metals. Arsenic, mercury, lead, inorganic and organic pollutants – their reactivity and effect of some pollutants on human and plant life.Application of mathematics in biology. General introduction to computers.
Section-B : Life Sciences: Cell structure and function, Cell organelles, Cell division. Genetics, laws of inheritance, Linkage, Crossing over, Polyploidy, Hybrid vigour and Sex determination. Structure and replication of DNA, genetic recombination, transcription and post transcriptional modifications, Concept of genetic code, RNA and ribosomes – their function and role in protein synthesis. Gene cloning, application of gene cloning in medicine, Gene Mapping, Mutations. Cell and its biochemical organization – Structure, chemistry, properties and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins Concept of basic metabolism, Role of enzymes in Metabolism, Enzyme kinetics, inhibition, and Regulation. Microbiology – Classification and identification of bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms, structure and isolation, culture methods, role of microbes in carbon, nitrogen and sulphur cycles in nature. Immunology – Organism immunity, immunity to infectious diseases and vaccines.
Section C : Principles of Biotechnology: Principles and applications of centrifugation, Paper and Thin layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, agarose gel electrophoresis and their applications. Principle and applications of UV-Visible spectroscopy. Microscopic techniques–Light and electron microscopy. Fermentation – Introduction, types of fermentation processes (batch, fed-batch, continuous), types of fermenters (Stirred tank & Air-Lift Fermenters), feed culture preparation, inoculum preparation and product yield. Product Recovery Techniques (Biomass separation, filtration, centrifugation, membrane separation), Product purification techniques (Dialysis, reverse osmosis, organic solvent extraction). Production of alcoholic beverages (Beer and wine), antibiotics (Penicillin), organic acids (Citric acid), amino acids (Glutamic acid). Single cell proteins and Probiotics. Media used for plant tissue culture, different components of media, sterilization of media, Callus culture, Meristem culture, Somatic embryogenesis, Synthetic seeds, transgenic plants and applications. Serum and serum free media used for maintenance of animal cell lines, Sterilization of media, Maintenance of primary cell line and secondary cell lines, transgenic animals and their applications. Definition and scope of environmental biotechnology, Municipal solid waste disposal, Microbiological treatment of municipal sewage and industrial effluents, Waste water treatment system (Aerobic, anaerobic and activated sludge process), Bioremediation, Biodegradation.
Test No. 03 : Botany
Section A: Origin and evolution of Life – an outline. Viruses: Structure, replication and transmission; plant diseases caused by viruses and their control. Bacteria: Structure, nutrition, reproduction and economic importance. An outline of Plant diseases of important crop plants caused by bacteria and their control. Cyanobacteria: General Account of Cell Structure, thallus organisation and their prospecting (uses), Biofertilizers. Algae and Fungi:Algae: General account, thallus organisation, structure, reproduction, classification and economic importance. Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Oedogonium, Coleochaete, Chara, Ectocarpus and Polysiphonia. Fungi: General characters, classification and economic importance Structure, reproduction and life history of Albugo, Saccharomyces, Penicillium, Puccinia, Alternaria,. General account of plant diseases caused by Fungi and their control. Bryophyta and Pteridophyta: Bryophytes: General characters, classification and alternation of generations Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Marchantia, Anthoceros and Polytrichum . Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes. Pteridophytes: General characters, classification, alternation of generations and evolution of sporophtyte Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Rhynia, Lycopodium, Equisetum and Marsilea Evolution of stele, heterospory and seed habit in Pteridophytes. Gymnosperms and Palaeobotany: Gymnosperms: General characters, structure, reproduction and classification Morphology of vegetative and reproductive parts, systemic position, life history of Pinus and Gnetum Palaeobotany: Introduction, Fossils and fossilization; Geological time scale; Importance of fossils.Bennettitales
Section B: Meristems: Types, histological organisation of shoot and root apices and theories. Tissues and Tissue Systems: Simple and complex . Leaf: Ontogeny, diversity of internal structure; stomata and epidermal outgrowths. Stem and root: Vascular cambium – Formation and function. Anamalous secondary growth-General account. Stem – Achyranthes, Boerhavia, Bignonia, Dracaena; Root – Beta Wood structure: General account. Study of local timbers – Teak ( Tectona grandis), Rosewood, ( Albergia latefolia), Red sanders, ( Pterocarpus santalinus) Nallamaddi ( Terminalia tomentosa (T. alata)), Yegisa ( Pterocarpus marsupiun) and Neem ( Azadirachta indica).
Embryology: Introduction: History and importance of Embryology. Anther structure, Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte. Ovule structure and types; Megasporogenesis; types and development of female gametophyte. Pollination – Types; Pollen – pistil interaction. Fertilization. Endosperm – Development and types. Embryo – development and types; Polyembryony and Apomixis – an outline. Palynology: Principles and applications. Taxonomy: Introduction: Principles of plant systematics, Systematics vs Taxonomy, Types of classification: Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic. Systems of classification: Salient features and comparative account of Bentham & Hooker and Engler & Prantle. An introduction to Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). Current concepts in Angiosperm Taxonomy: Embryology in relation to taxonomy, Cytotaxonomy, Chemotaxonomy and Numerical Taxonomy. Nomenclature and Taxonomic resources: An introduction to ICBN, Vienna code – a brief account. Herbarium: Concept, techniques and applications. Systematic study and economic importance of plants belong to the following families: Annonaceae, Capparaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae (Faboideae/papilionoideae, Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae), Cucurbitaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae and Poaceae. Medicinal Botany: Ethnomedicine: Scope, interdisciplinary nature, distinction of Ethnomedicine from Folklore medicine. Outlines of Ayurveda, Sidda, Unani and Homeopathic systems of traditional medicine. Role of AYUSH, NMPB, CIMAP and CDRI. Plants in primary health care: Common medicinal plants – Tippateega ( Tinospora cordifolia), tulasi ( Oscimum sanctum), pippallu ( Piper longum), Karaka ( Terminalia chebula), Kalabanda ( Aloe vera), Turmeric ( Curcuma longa). Traditional medicine vs Modern medicine: Study of select plant examples used in traditional medicine as resource (active principles, structure, usage and pharmacological action) of modern medicine: Aswagandha ( Withania somnifera), Sarpagandha ( Rauvolfia serpentina) , Nela usiri (Phyllanthus amarus), Amla ( Phyllanthus emblica) and Brahmi ( Bacopa monnieri) Moner. Pharmacognosy: Introduction and scope. Adulteration of plant crude drugs and methods of identification – some examples. Indian Pharmacopoeia. Evaluation of crude drugs.
Section C: Cell Biology: Plant cell envelops: Ultra structure of cell wall, molecular organisation of cell membranes. Nucleus: Ultrastructure, Nucleic acids – Structure and replication of DNA; types and functions of RNA Chromosomes: Morphology, organisation of DNA in a chromosome, Euchromatin and Heterochromatin. Karyotype .Cell division: Cell cycle and its regulation; mitosis, meiosis and their significance. Genetics: Mendelism: Laws of inheritance. Genetic interactions – Epistasis, complementary,supplementary and inhibitory genes. Linkage and crossing over: A brief account, construction of genetic maps – 2 point and 3 point test cross data Mutations: Chromosomal aberrations-Structural and numerical changes; Gene mutations, transposable elements Gene Expression: Organisation of gene, transcription, translation, mechanism and regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes (Lac.and Trp Operons ) Extra nuclear genome: Mitochondrial and plastid DNA, plasmids. Ecology: Concept and components of Ecosystem. Energy flow, food chains, food webs, ecological pyramids, biogeochemical cycles – Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus. Plants and environment: Ecological factors – Climatic (light and temperature), edaphic and biotic. Ecological adaptations of plants. Population ecology: Natality, mortality, growth curves, ecotypes, ecads. Community ecology: Frequency, density, cover, life forms, biological spectrum, ecological succession (Hydrosere, Xerosere). Production ecology: Concepts of productivity, GPP, NPP, CR (Community Respiration) and secondary production, P/R ratio and Ecosystems.Biodiversity and Conservation: Biodiversity: Concepts, Convention on Biodiversity – Earth Summit. Types of biodiversity. Levels, threats and value of Biodiversity. Hot spots of India – Endemism, North Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats. Agro-biodiversity: Vavilov centres of crop plants. Principles of conservation: IUCN threat-categories, RED data book – threatened & endangered plants of India. Role of organisations in the conservation of Biodiversity – IUCN, UNEP, WWF, NBPGR, NBD.