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University : Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University
Announcement : CET 2015
Facility : Syllabus

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Syllabus for CET for M.Tech. (Food Processing Technology) :
CET Code-152
Characteristics of microorganisms Morphology, structure and detection of bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells; Microbial growth in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution method for quantification; Food spoilage: Contributing factors, Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products, meat and meat PRODUCTS; FOODBORNE disease: Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Aspergillus; Bacterial pathogens: Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter; Fermented food: Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese, sausage, alcoholic beverage, vinegar, sauerkraut and soya sauce.

(ii) MOLECULES AND THEIR INTERACTION RELAVENT TO BIOLOGY Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds. Composition, structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins). Stablizing interactions (Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, etc.).Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties). Bioenergetics, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reaction, group transfer, biological energy transducers. Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary structure, domains, motif and folds). Conformation of nucleic acids (helix (A, B, Z), t-RNA, micro-RNA). Stability of proteins and nucleic acids. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids nucleotides and vitamins.

Membrane structure and function (Structure of model membrane, lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, membrane pumps, mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport, electrical properties of membranes). Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles (Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility). Organization of genes and chromosomes (Operon, unique and repetitive DNA, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons). Cell division and cell cycle (Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, regulation and control of cell cycle). Microbial Physiology and characteristics, strategies of cell division, stress response).

Photosynthesis – Light harvesting complexes; mechanisms of electron transport; photoprotective mechanisms; CO2 fixation-C3, C4 and CAM pathways. Respiration and photorespiration – Citric acid cycle; plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis; alternate oxidase; photorespiratory pathway. Nitrogen metabolism – Nitrate and ammonium assimilation; amino acid biosynthesis. Plant hormones – Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological effects and mechanisms of action. Sensory photobiology – Structure, function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; stomatal movement; photoperiodism and biological clocks. Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation – uptake, transport and translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells, across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates. Secondary metabolites – Biosynthesis of terpenes, phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles. Stress physiology – Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water, temperature and salt) stresses.

Carbohydrates: Structure and functional properties of mono- oligo-polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre; Proteins: Classification and structure of proteins in food; Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids, Rancidity of fats, Polymerization and polymorphism; Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin; Food flavours: Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones; Enzymes: Specificity,Kinetics and inhibition, Coenzymes, Enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning; Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients, Nutrition deficiency diseases.

Syllabus for CET for M.Tech. (Nano Science and Technology) :
CET Code-149
Answer any three section, Physics & Chemistry sections are compulsory
1. Physics – 33.33% 2. Chemistry – 33.33% 3. Mathematics – 33.33% Or Biology – 33.33%.
Interference: Young’s double slit experiment, Fresnel’s biprism, Thin films, Newton’s rings, Michelson’s interferometer, Fabry Perot interferometer. Diffraction: Fresnel Diffraction: Zone plate, circular aperture, opaque circular disc, narrow slit, Fraunhofer diffraction: Single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power and dispersive power.
Polarization: Types of polarization, Brewsters law, Malu’s Law, Nicol prism, double refraction, quarterwave and half-wave plates, optical activity, specific rotation.
Lasers: Introduction, coherence, population inversion, basic principle and operation of a laser, Einstein A and B coefficients, type of lasers, He-Ne laser, Ruby laser, semiconductor laser, holography-theory and applications Fibre Optics: Types of optical fibres and their characteristics, (Attenuation and dispersion step index and graded index fibres, principle of fibre optic communication-total internal reflection, numerical aperture, fibre optical communication network (qualitative)-its advantages. Theory of Relativity: Galenlian transformations, the postulates of the special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations, time dilation, length contraction, velocity addition, mass energy equivalence.
Thermodynamics: The first law and other basic concepts: dimensions, units, work, heat, energy, the first law of thermodynamics, enthalpy, equilibrium, phase rule, heat capacity, PVT behavior of pure substances, ideal gas, real gas, heat effects. The second law and Entropy: statements, heat engines, Kelvin-Planck and Clausious statements and their equality, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot cycle, thermodynamic temperature scale, entropy,ent ropy calculations, T-S diagrams, properties of pure substances, use of steam tables and Mollier diagram. Refrigeration and liquefaction: the Carnot refrigerator, the vapor–compression cycle, comparison of refrigeration cycles, liquefaction processes, heat pump. Rankine power cycle. Quantum Mechanics: Wave particle duality, deBroglie waves, evidences for the wave nature of matter – the experiment of Davisson and Germer, electron diffraction, physical interpretation of the wave function and its properties, the wave packet, the uncertainty principle. The Schrodinger wave equation (1 – dimensional), Eigen values and Eigen functions, expectation values, simple Eigen value problems – solutions of the Schrodinger’s equations for the free particle, the infinite well, the finite well, tunneling effect, simple harmonic oscillator (qualitative), zero point energy. Quantum Statistics: The statistical distributions, Maxwell Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics, their comparisons, Fermions and Bosons. Applications: Molecular speed and energies in an ideal gas. The Black-body spectrum and failure of classical statistics to give the correct explanation – the application of Bose-Einstein statistics to the Black-body radiation spectrum, Fermi-Dirac distribution to free electron theory, electron specific heats, Fermi energy and average energy -its significance. Band theory of solids: Origin of energy bands in solids, Kronig-Penny model, Brillouin zones, effective mass, Metals, semiconductors and insulators and their energy band structure. Extrinsic and intrinsic semiconductors, p-n junction diodes- its characteristics, tunnel diode, zener diode, photodiode, LED, photovoltaic cell, Hall effect in semiconductors, transistor characteristics (common base, common emitter, common collector). Digital techniques and their applications (registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits) A/D and D/A converters Superconductivity: ZFC and FC, Meissner effect, Type I and II superconductors, the Josephson effect, flux quantization, Cooper pairs, BCS theory, properties and applications of superconductors. X-rays: production and properties, crystalline and amorphous solids, Bragg’s law, applications. Electricity and magnetism: Electric fields, Gauss’ Law, its integral and differential form, applications. Lorentz force, fields due to moving charges, the magnetic field, Ampere’s law, motion of a charged particle in an electric and magnetic field, magnetic and electrostatic focussing, Hall effect, determination of e/m by cathode ray tube, positive rays, Thomson’s parabolic method, Isotopes, Mass spectrographs (Aston and Bainbridge), Electron microscope, Cyclotron and Betatron. Overview of Electro – Magnetism: Maxwell’s Equations: The equation of continuity for Time – Varying fields, Inconsistency in ampere’s law Maxwell’s Equations, conditions at a Boundary Surface, Introduction to EM wave. Nuclear Physics: Introduction of nucleus, Nucleus radius and density, Nuclear forces, Nuclear reactions, Cross section, Q-value and threshold energy of nuclear reactions, Basic Idea for Nuclear Reactor, Breeder reactor, The Geiger-Mullar (G.M.) Counter, Introduction of Accelerators and its Applications.
Numerical techniques: Interpolations, differentiation, integration; Nonlinear equations, the bisection methods, Newton’s method, root finding; Differential equations, Euler’s method, the Runge-Kutta method; Matrices-inverting, finding eigenvalues and eigenfunctions.

Gaseous State: Kinetic theory, molecular velocity, Probable distribution of velocities, mean free path, collision frequency. Distribution of energies of molecules translational, rotational & vibrational, Law of equipartitions of energies, Equation of State of a real gas. Critical phenomenon & principle of corresponding states.
The phase rule: Derivation of phase rule, significance of various terms involved in the definition of phase rule. Phase diagrams of one component systems (Water, Sulphur and CO2).
Two component system: Eutectic, congruent and incongruent systems with examples: Partial miscible liquids: Lower and upper consolute point.
Chemical thermodynamics: Intensive and extensive variables; state and path functions; isolated, closed and open systems; zeroth law of thermodynamics.

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